Understanding substitutions in Jazz

Discussion in 'Education' started by MMJ2017, Oct 16, 2019.

  1. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    To understand substitutions in Jazz ,
    We first want to think about our 3 functions in tonal music .
    Tonic/ Subdominant/ Dominant

    Our substitutions will exist in 1 of these 3 categories .
    Tonic is relaxed or still.
    Subdominant is little tense or some motion.
    Dominant is very tense or lots of motion far from home.

    Any substitution , will exist in one of these functions. But to understand how that works
    We have to look first at our Diatonic key to begin.

    Let's look at the key of C major A relative minor first.
    CDEFGABC

    1.CEGB
    2.DFAC
    3EGBD
    4.FACE
    5GBDF
    6.ACEG
    7BDFA.

    Now, 7 chords in the key which fit in 3 functions or categories.

    Tonic
    1.CEGB Cmaj ( but used C6 (CEGA
    3.EGBD Emin7
    6.ACEG Amin7

    These are the Diatonic tonic substitutions .
    We can use any of these 3 chords in place of each other in the I spot as substitutions .

    Subdominant
    2.DFAC ( Dminor7
    4.FACE (Fmajor7 this is when we use a major7

    These are the Diatonic Subdominant chords which can be swapped out for each other .

    Dominant
    5.GBDF G7
    7.BDFA Bhalf Dim

    These are the Diatonic Dominant chords substitution.

    This covers the 7 chords in the key.

    Before we get to see non Diatonic substitutions for this key in these 3 categories, we need to see the structure of chords progressions which the Diatonic chords make sense in .
    ( Because it is these structure of the progressions with the 3 functions turned into chord Progressions which serves as a blueprint for non Diatonic substitutions )
     
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  3. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    Diatonic Chord Progressions in the KEY of C major.

    First we start with I Cmajor6
    ( Note: we use a major 6 chord on I or our tonic more on this later)

    A KEY is. Center point for which our attention is focused . Even though there are 7 Diatonic chords
    Within 3 functions, everything is based on a Cmajor CEG center focus.( The relationships are compared to Cmajor )
    So CEG Cmajor is tonic or relaxed at home stillness no motion no clashing no tension .
    This is the starting point from which progressions come in this KEY.

    The first progression is a natural outgrowth of our single chord C Maj CEG .

    It is V7 to I
    Dominant/ to Tonic/

    Tension to release .
    Motion to stillness .
    Clashing to relaxing .

    Our Diatonic Dominant chord is G7 GBDF.

    So our V to I is.

    GBDF/ CEGA/
    G7.........C6

    Now we see here we are using C6 CEGA Cmajor six
    This can be C CEGC or CEG also.

    ( Note we don't use a major7 here because that B note is an important part of our tritone in G7
    B resolves up to C
    F resolves down to E )

    So our first progression is
    Dominant/ to Tonic/

    G7 to C6

    We can " turn around " our progression also.

    This means

    Tonic /. Dominant/ Tonic

    Home, away ,home.

    C6/ G7/ C6/

    Just a simple modification , the turn around makes it so we don't begin simply with G7 to C6

    Because of the way you may want to build your melody in a song you would choose one or another
    Either
    V7 to I
    Or
    I V I
    ( Of course you can chain them in faster pace as well if the melody calls for it.)
    I V I V I V I V I
    Dominant / tonic/
    Is our first progression.
    ( A natural outgrowth of the I tonic chord.)

    Next our next progression is also a natural outgrowth of C CEG as well
    It is
    Subdominant / Tonic /

    IV to I

    FACE Fmajor7 to CEGA C6

    ( Note: the four chord is where you use the major 7

    This progression is
    Some tension to relaxed .
    Some motion to still.

    The slight tension of Subdominant resolved to tonic .
    It is the weaker version of the first progression .
    Instead of very tense going to relaxed as in V7 to I6
    ( Where the V7 resolves downward to Cmajor harmonically )
    With IV to I
    The IV resolves up to Cmajor

    Just as before this can be " turned around"
    I IV I

    Relaxed , little tension , relaxed

    It is a way to introduce some harmonic motion .

    Subdominant/ to Tonic/


    Here is an example of connecting our first 2 progressions .
    I IV I V I

    C6/ Fmaj7/ C6/ G7/ C6........

    So we have 2 progressions so far.

    Dominant/ to Tonic/

    And

    Subdominant/ to Tonic/

    ( Each of these can be turned around also )

    Our next progression is a variation of combining these 2 progressions .

    It is

    Subdominant/ Dominant/ Tonic/

    Little tension, very tense, relaxed
    Some motion , lots motion, still
    Leaving home, far from home, Home

    iimin7/ V7/ I6

    Dmin7/ G7/ Cmajor

    2 chord to 5 chord to 1 chord.

    A variation is
    IV V I

    Fmaj7/ G7/ C6/

    This is a Cadence .

    ii V I

    It is building up slower than just IV to I or V to I
    It gives you more time with your melody.


    As before this progression can be "turned around"

    I ii V I

    But we do a modification to this to arrive at a
    " turn around "
    Which is the name given to this .

    I vi ii V I

    What is happening is we start with .

    I ii V I
    Make the I in the beginning twice as long
    I I ii V I

    Then swap that second I For it's substitution

    I vi ii V I

    C6/ Amin7/ Dmin7 G7/ C6/

    Tonic/ Tonic/ Subdom/ Dominant/ Tonic/

    With this progression
    We have simply spread out the motion over time

    It's a more detailed version of ii V I
    You will see this one as

    I vi ii V I

    1.Cmaj
    6.Amin7
    2.Dmin7
    5.G7
    1.Cmaj

    These are the main Diatonic progressions used like building blocks in a song .
     
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  4. farao

    farao Rock Star

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    Love this subject! This is what makes jazz.
     
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  5. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    Before looking at our Diatonic substitutions in this KEY, let's quickly look again at our main progressions in terms of functions.

    1. Dominant/ Tonic ( or added tonic in front
    2. Subdominant/ Tonic ( or added tonic in front
    3. Subdominant/ Dominant/ Tonic
    4. Tonic/ Tonic / Subdominant/ Dominant/ Tonic


    We always want to think of a chord progression in terms of what functions they are.


    Let's now look at Diatonic substitutions

    Tonic.
    1.CEG..Cmajor
    3.EGBD..Eminor7
    6.ACEG.. Aminor7

    Subdominant
    2.DFAC..Dminor7
    4.FACE..Fmaj7

    Dominant
    5.GBDF..G7
    7.BDFA..Bmin7b5


    Let's take our first progression

    Dominant/ to Tonic/

    Let's turn it around .

    Tonic/ to Dominant/

    But finish it off with a proper resolution .

    Tonic / Dominant/ Tonic

    Taking this progression, lets
    use our Diatonic substitutions.

    First is our standard V7 to I

    G7 GBDF to Cmajor CEGC

    We can make our 1 chord C6 CEGA

    G7 to C6

    We can substitute Cmajor with Emin7

    GBDF/ to EGBD

    We can also swap our V7 with vii %(7.BDFA

    BDFA/ to EGBD

    And we can swap Emin7 with Aminor7

    BDFA / to ACEG/



    Diatonic substitutions for first progression
    Tonic/ Dominant/ Tonic/

    Cmaj/ G7/ C6
    Cmaj/ G7/ Emin7
    Emin7/ G7/ C6
    Amin7/ Bmin7b5/ Emin7
    Cmaj/ Bmin7b5/ Emin7
    Cmaj/ Bmin7b5/ Amin7
    Emin7/ G7/ C6
    Amin7/ Bmin7b5/ Cmajor

    You can see that with our first form
    Dominant/ Tonic/

    We already have a lot of " flavors"
    In terms of Diatonic substitutions .
     
  6. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    Let's look now at our second progression .

    Subdominant/ Tonic/

    And as before turn it around

    Tonic/ Subdominant/

    But resolve it at the end
    Tonic/ Subdominant/ Tonic/

    Let's see what our Diatonic substitutions are now.


    Tonic
    I.C6 ..CEGA
    III Emin7...EGBD
    vi.Aminor7..ACEG

    Subdominant
    ii.Dmin7..DFAC
    IV Fmaj7..FACE



    ........................

    First of all let's take a quick note about the connection between any
    major6 chord and any minor7 chord.

    Fmaj7 FACE
    F6. ......FACD
    Dmin7..DFAC

    Cmaj7 CEGB
    C6.......CEGA
    Amin7..ACEG

    We can see here that F6 FACD is same as
    Dmin7..DFAC
    And that
    C6..CEGA is same as Amin7..ACEG

    And that connection between our substitutions .
    Fmaj7 sub with Dmin7
    Cmaj7 sub with Amin7
    F6 is same Dmin7
    C6 is same as Aminor7
    ..................................



    First we have

    Cmaj/ Fmaj7/ C6

    We can make it
    C6/ F6/ Cmaj/

    Cmaj/ Dmin7/ C6
    Emin7/ F6/ C6/
    Emin7/ Dmin7/ C6
    Amin7/ Dmin7/ Emin7
    Emin7/ Fmaj7/ Amin7

    As with our first progression we have a number
    Of " flavors" available using our
    Diatonic substitutions.
     
  7. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    Now look at our 3 rd progression

    Subdominant/ Dominant/ Tonic

    Here we are stretching the progression
    Out a little bit more compared to the first two

    Dmin7/ G7/ C6

    ( Note. We use the ii chord here as the standard approach because it nicely follows descending fifths pattern D down G down to C the cycle of fourths or circle of fifths)

    Dmin7/ G7/ Cmajor
    Fmaj7/ G7/ C6
    F6/ Bmin7b5/ Emin7
    F6/ G7/ Amin7
    Fmaj7/ Bmin7b5/ Amin7
    F6/ G7/ Emin7

    There are a few Diatonic substitutions
    You can see as the progression becomes larger you get more variety of " flavors"
    ( Especially chaining progressions like Legos to create a whole song form section )

    Now looking at our next progression

    Tonic/ Tonic/ Subdominant/ Dominant/ Tonic

    Takes on 3 standard versions

    I vi ii V I
    iii vi ii V I

    I vi ii V iii vi ii V I


    Cmaj/ Amin7/ Dmin7/ G7/ C6 ......
    Emin7/ Amin7/ Dmin7/ G7/ Cmajor


    ( The Diatonic substitutions are the same as before)
     
  8. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    Before we look at the Diatonic progressions for the
    Relative A minor .

    Let's first look at chaining together our progressions in C major to create a simple song form.

    ( Note: each chord shown lasts for 1234


    C6/ C6/ Fmaj7/ C6/. Dmin7/ G7/ C6/ C6/

    1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234

    Emin7/ Amin7/ Dmin7/ G7/C6/ Emin7/Fmaj7/C6
    1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234


    Let's look at how this Chorus is constructed.

    We take our
    Subdominant/ Tonic /

    Make it a turn around
    Tonic/ Subdominant/
    Then resolve it
    Tonic/ Subdominant/ Tonic
    Finally we add another Tonic in front in order
    Even the measure.

    Tonic/ Tonic/ Subdominant/ Tonic

    Then at the end of this we take our ii V I
    And extend the one at the end to even out the measure .

    Subdominant/ Dominant/ Tonic/ Tonic

    Now we make sure the ends and the beginnings of the progression match up correctly.

    So we can see our first part
    I I IV I

    Ends with I
    Then our next part
    ii V I I
    That I goes into ii V I I just fine .
    Next

    We have a " turn around"
    iii vi ii V I
    We start with a 3.Emin7 iii chord
    Because the chord which came before it was I

    Finally for our last section .

    We have

    Subdominant/ Tonic/

    And like before turn it around and resolve it

    Tonic/ Subdominant/ Tonic

    Then to even out the measure We add another Tonic

    Tonic/ Tonic/ Subdominant/ Tonic

    This gives us

    C6/ C6/ Fmaj7/ C6

    However 1 last change is to make the second tonic a Emin7 for more variety .

    C6/ Emin7/ Fmaj7/ C6


    Now let's look at the whole thing.

    A song form A section using our progressions like Lego building blocks .

    C6/ C6/ Fmaj7/ C6/. Dmin7/ G7/ C6/ C6/

    1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234

    Emin7/ Amin7/ Dmin7/ G7/C6/ Emin7/Fmaj7/C6
    1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234 1234
     
  9. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    The first place in Jazz , where we introduce other notes besides the 7 notes in our KEY
    Is the V7 chord our Dominant chord.
    The tension function has a strong pull to our tonic .
    In the KEY of C major
    G7 GBDF is our V7 chord dominant .
    The B pulls to resolve to C .
    The F pulls to resolve to E

    These half step motion is the strongest resolution.

    There are alterations that can be made to the dominant chord which create tension that resolves to C major CEG.

    GBDFA..C..E..
    135791113

    The 3rd B And the 7th B are the strongest.
    However we can alter other notes to have this strong half step resolution as well.

    C# resolves To C strong

    C# is flat 5th
    GBD
    135

    D# resolves to E strong
    D# is #5th
    GBD
    135

    G# resolves to G strong ( CEG
    G# is flat 9th
    GBDFA
    13579

    A# resolves to A strong ( CEGA
    A# is #9th
    GBDFA
    13579

    Because of modifications available for any dominant chord we get different dominant chords.

    Ex.
    G7 altered
    ( Flat 5, sharp 5 ( but no natural 5
    Flat 9 sharp 9 ( but no natural nine

    GBD#FG#C#
    For example has #5, b9th, #11th
    No natural 5 or 9 or 11

    .

    The dominant chord first Substitution
    Is called the Tritone substitution .
    We take the 3rd B and 7th F
    Of G7

    Flip them around other way ( because a Tritone is symmetrical)

    Which dominant chord has 3rd F and 7th of B?

    It is C#7 ( or Db7

    C#FG#B
    1.35.7
    Db F Ab Cb
    1..3..5...7

    C#7 is the Tritone substitute of G7.
    It can be used any instance a dominant chord exists. ( And the notes in the chord fit with your melody of the song )

    Let's look at the progression

    Subdominant/ Dominant/ Tonic/

    Dmin7/ G7/ C6/

    DFAC/ GBDF/ CEGA

    Now let's substitute the G7 with it's
    "Tritone substitute"
    C#7 ....C#FG#B

    Dmin7/ C#7/ C6

    DFAC/ C#FG#B/ CEGA/

    Here we can see a chromatic descending motion in the Bass. This is a powerful sound to work with .
     
  10. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    Non Diatonic substitutions for the Dominant function .


    The very first substitutions in Jazz is for the dominant function .

    The way that this works is to take our progressions from before

    Dominant/ to Tonic/

    And


    Subdominant/ Dominant/ tonic


    Let's look at " Secondary dominants"

    First.

    In the KEY of C major .
    You have a secondary dominant for every single chord in the KEY of C major .
    ( This is staying in the key of C major you never leave the Key using these)

    Let's see this structure

    Dominant/ Tonic/

    Applied to each Diatonic chord.

    1.Cmaj7..CEG...(...G7..GBDF/ to Cmajor
    2.Dmin7..DFAC..( A7.. AC#EG/ to Dmin7
    3.Emin7..EGBD..(B7..BD#F#A/ to Emin7
    4.Fmaj7..FACE..(C7..CEGA#/ to Fmaj7
    5.G7.....GBDF.... (D7.. DF#AC/ to G7
    6.Amin7..ACEG..(E7..EG#BD/ to Aminor7
    7.Bmin7b5.BDFA(F#7..F#A#C#EtoBhalfdim

    This is called "Secondary Dominants"
    The very first non Diatonic substitution in Jazz.

    Let's look at the first place you encounter and use this.

    First in the KEY of C major let's look at a Diatonic progression

    Cmajor/ Cmajor/ Fmaj7/ C6

    Tonic/ Tonic/ Subdominant/ Tonic/

    If we look at the Cmaj right before Fmaj7

    Cmaj/ Cmaj7/ Fmaj7 Cmaj/

    We turn this into a secondary dominant .

    Cmaj7/ C7/ Fmaj7/ Cmaj

    By doing this we create that strong resolution to Fmajor7 the 4th degree of C major KEY.

    Let's look at the next place you will encounter and use secondary Dominants.

    In this " turn around"

    CMaj/ Amin7/ Dmin7/ G7/ C6

    I vi ii V I

    Look at the portion Amin7/ to Dmin7/

    We turn this into a " secondary dominant"
    To get the strong resolution to the Dmin7

    Cmaj/ A7/ Dmin7/ G7/ C6
     
  11. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    The next non Diatonic substitution

    Is to take

    Subdominant/ Dominant/ Tonic/

    This progression is a " Cadence"

    We have a cadence for each chord in the KEY of
    C major ( without ever leaving the key at all )

    Let's see this for each Diatonic chord .
    1.Cmaj7.. ( Dmin7, G7, Cmajor.. DFAC, GBDF, CEGA
    2.Dmin7..(Emin7b5,A7,Dmin7..EGA#D,AC#EG,DFAC
    3.Emin7.(F#min7b5,B7, Emin7. F#ACE,BD#F#A,EGB
    4.Fmaj7.(Gmin7,C7,Fmaj7...GA#DF,CEGA#,FACE
    5.G7.......(Amin7,D7,G7......ACEG,DF#AC,GBDF
    6.Amin7.. (Bmin7b5, E7, Amin7.BDFA,EG#BD,ACEG
    7.Bmin7b5(C#min7b5,F#7,Bmin7b5,C#EGB,F#A#C


    Let's look at where we use this substitution
    Secondary cadence .


    First in key of C major our
    Subdominant/ Tonic/
    Diatonic progression .

    Turn around

    Cmaj/ Cmaj/ Cmaj/ Cmaj/ Fmaj7/ Fmaj7/ C6/C6/

    And we focus on the Fmaj7 make it a secondary
    Cadence.

    C6/ C6/ Gmin7/ C7/ Fmaj7/ Fmaj7/ C6/ C6/


    Let's look at another place you will encounter this.


    C6/ C6/ G7/ G7/ C6/ C6/

    C6/ C6/ Amin7/ D7/ Dmin7/ G7/ C6

    So when it comes to a secondary cadence of the V7 of the key, you structure it as just the ii V of V7 then right into the ii V I of your KEY.
     
  12. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    The relative Minor KEY progressions .
    A relative minor to C major is
    ABCDEFG

    This is A natural minor
    We use 3 different minors in specific places in Jazz

    A natural minor ABCDEFG
    A harmonic minor ABCDEFG#
    A melodic minor ABCDEF#G#

    The minor version of

    Subdominant/ Dominant/ Tonic/

    Is Bmin7b5/ E7/ Amin6/

    iimin7b5/ V7/ imin6

    We use the Bmin7b5 from natural minor
    We use the E7 from A harmonic minor
    We use the Amin6 from A melodic minor.

    BMin7b5 BDFA/ E7.EG#BD Amin6.ACEF#/

    This usage is the form of ii V I we use as secondary cadences for C major A relative minor shown before .

    1.AMin6..( Bmin7b5,E7,Amin6,BDFA,EG#BD,ACEF#
    2 Bmin7b5..(C#Min7b5,F#7,Bmin7b5)
    3.Cmaj6..(Dmin7,G7,Cmajor
    4.Dmin7..(Emin7b5,A7,Dmin6)
    5.Emin7..(F#min7b5,B7,Emin6
    6.Fmaj7.(Gmin7,C7,F6)
    7.G7.....(Amin7,D7,Dmin7,G7,C6
     
  13. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    Now we have come for enough with our substitutions to see symmetrical objects play a important part in jazz with substitutions and form.

    In the KEY of C major we have G7 GBDF as the Diatonic Dominant function.

    We seen before that we can alterations to the notes in G7 dominant chord.
    One alteration is the most important to understand because it ties into several chord substitutions .

    B diminished 7th chord
    Is BDFG#

    This is same as G7 except the G is G#.
    G# is the b9th of G7

    GBDFA
    13579

    BDim7 BDFG#
    Is a symmetrical chord.

    It is a chord where all the notes same distance apart from each other ( a minor 3rd

    So B dim7 is BDFG#
    D dim7 is DFG#B
    Fdim7 is FG#BD
    G#dim7 is G#BDF

    All these chords are all those names .
    It means it is a chord that many different things can be used on .
    Symmetrical objects have the most usages in jazz but they also make strong connections .

    If we take Bdim7
    BDFG#
    Flatted the last note we get
    G7 GBDF
    If we take same Bdim7 but different inversions .
    BDFG#
    DFG#B
    FG#BD
    G#BDF

    Ddim7 flatted last note is DFG#A#
    ( Bb7 Tritone of E7 for Amin relative to C major

    Fdim7 flatted last note is FG#BC#
    ( C#7 Tritone sub of G7

    G#dim7 G#BDF flatten last note G#BDE
    ( E7 V7 of Amin relative of c Maj


    What this means is that this one chord
    Bdim7
    Is literally
    G7 V7 of C Maj
    C#7 tritone sub of Cmaj
    Bb7 Tritone sub of A rel minor
    E7 V7 of A rel minor.

    Now the dim7 chord is equal spaced minor 3rds
    This means 3 dim7 chords ( 4 notes peice)
    Equals all 12 notes in the chromatic scale .

    This is game changing .

    Let's think of it like this
    Take
    Bdiminished7 7th

    BDFG#

    Now picture each note of it simply having the note right before and right after in your minds eye.

    Like this

    A#
    B
    C

    But for each note in B dim7

    A#C#E.G
    B..D..F..G#
    C..D#F#A

    Right there you have all 12 notes that exist
    Next you have a way to create any chord that exists in music .

    Think of it like a bicycle lick combination .
    You can change the value of a note inside the dim7
    By lower a semi tone or raiding a semitone.


    A#C#E.G
    B..D..F..G#
    C..D#F#A

    Let's say start Bdim7 BDFG#
    Raise last note semitone
    BDFA that's Bmin7b5
    Or
    Take C dim7 chord
    CD#F#A
    Raise the 2nd and 3rd notes by semitone

    CEGA Cmajor6

    What you'll find is with 3 dim7 chords
    Any chord in existence can be made by sliding up or down by a semitone.

    Because of this symmetrical properties
    Dim7 chords can be used in song forms and progressions in all kinds of places and substitutions
     
  14. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    Using the Dim7 as a substitution for a dominant function .

    Still in the key of C major

    Let's look at this progression .

    Dominant/ Tonic/

    G7/ C6/

    GBDF/ CEGA

    We seen before that we can substitute

    G7 with Bdim7

    Let's do this here.

    BDFG# / CEGA/

    Now turn it around

    CEGA/ BDFG#

    Now let's take these 2 sets of 8 notes and order then in a row together as a scale .

    CDEFGG#AB

    The bold notes are the Cmajor6
    The others are the Bdim7

    However we now have something amazing .
    Look at the notes in a row .
    C
    D
    E
    F
    G
    G#
    A
    B

    Picture in your mind juggling these notes around to create some type of melody .

    Next attach the chord inversion to each note
    CEGA
    DFG#B
    EGAC
    FG#BD
    GACE
    G#BDF
    ACEG
    BDFG#
    CEGA

    What we now have is
    V7 to I
    Or
    Dominant/ to Tonic/

    In a way that folds over into a scale .

    Each note in the scale can be harmonized with a chord
    Whether you use it in chord form or melody form it harmony form.
    You can take these inversions okay forward to backward, backward to forward or zigzag patterns
    The whole time following the progression
    Tonic Dominant tonic dominant etc.

    CEGA C6
    DFG#B Bdim7
    EGAC C6
    FG#BD Bdim7
    GACE C6
    G#BDF Bdim7
    ACEG C6
    BDFG# Bdim7
    CEGA C6
     
  15. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    Non Diatonic Subdominant substitutions


    Let's look at our second progression at the start

    Subdominant/ Tonic

    Turn it around and resolve it

    Tonic/ Subdominant/ Tonic

    In the KEY of C major

    This is

    C6/ Fmaj7/ Cmaj

    We also have non Diatonic substitutions for the Subdominant function in C major .

    The first is called #IV diminished

    We seen before how a Dim7 works as a dominant
    Ex. G7 GBDF is Bdim7 BDFG#

    We also have this #IV dim7
    F#dim7
    F#ACD#

    Cmajor/ F#dim7/ Cmajor

    It works as a Subdominant chord.

    Some places you will see this in the KEY of C major

    Cmajor/ F#dim7/ Fmaj7/ Cmajor/

    ( Note the inversions of the same chord have these names
    F#dim7 F#ACD#
    Adim7 ACD#F#
    Cdim7 CD#F#A
    D#dim7 D#F#AC
    )

    Here is how the inversions appear in the key of C

    C6/ D#dim7/ Dmin7/ G7/

    Cmaj/ Cdim7/ Cmaj/

    F#dim7/ Fmaj7/ Emin7/ D#dim7/ Dmin7/ G7/ C6/

    The Next nondiatonic Subdominant substitution
    Is a category called IVminor

    In the KEY of C major these are

    Fminor7
    Bb7 ( A#7
    G#maj7 ( Abmaj7
    Dmin7b5
    Dbmaj7

    Here is how they appear in C major

    Subdominant/ Tonic/

    Turn around and resolve

    Tonic/ Subdominant/ Tonic/

    Cmaj/ Fminor7/ Cmaj

    Cmajor/ C7/ Fmajor7/ Bb7/ Cmajor/

    Cmaj / Dmin7b5/C6/

    Cmaj/ Abmajor/ Cmaj/

    C6/ C#Maj7/ Cmajor/

    Cmajor/ Fmaj7/ Fmin7/ Bb7/ Cmajor/
     
  16. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    Now that we have covered our non Diatonic substitutions , we can think of it like this.
    First our KEY
    C major / Aminor

    Then our 3 functions

    Tonic
    1.Cmaj C6
    3.Emin7
    6.Amin7 ( Amin6 for rel minor

    F#min7b5 F#ACE same as Amin6 ACEF#






    Dominant
    V7 G7 GBDF
    7.Bmin7b5 BDFA

    Tritone sub
    C#7 to Cmaj
    V7 rel minor E7 to Amin6
    Minor Tritone sub
    Bb7 to Amin6

    Bdim7 BDFG#
    G7
    A#7
    C#7
    E7

    G7 alt
    GBDF G#..A#..C#..D#..
    1357.. b9..#9.. b5.. b13

    E7 alt ( rel minor
    EG#BD. F...G......A#...C
    13..57.. b9.. #9.. b5.. #5

    Secondary Dominants and cadences.

    As well as circle of fifths descending V7
    Ex
    B7 E7 A7 D7 G7 Cmajor



    Subdominant

    2.Dmin7
    4.Fmaj7

    #IV dim7 F#dim7

    IV minor
    Fmin6 Fmin7
    Bb7 A#7
    Dmin7b5 Dhalfdiminished
    AbMaj7 G#maj7
    Dbmaj7 C#maj7





    Circle of fifths Diatonic .

    Bmin7b5,E7,Amin6,,Dmin7,G7,C6,Fmaj7

    Circle of fifths dominant

    B7/ E7/ A7/ D7/ G7/ C6/
     
    Last edited: Oct 17, 2019
  17. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    Excersizes to help and assist getting used to using all this in different keys.

    First let's take Key of C Maj A rel min
    Next
    Do our circle of fifths cycle of fourths

    Diatonic resolutions.

    Bmin7b5/E7/Amin6/Dmin7/G7/Cmaj/Fmaj7
    iimin7b5,V7,Imin6,iimin7,V7,Imaj6,IV,
    Look at the root and the type of chord.

    BEADGCFBbEbAbDbGbBEADGCFBbEbAbDbGb

    This is the pattern which we apply to any key.

    In the KEY of C major We start with
    iimin7b5 of A relative minor

    Say the Key of F major we simply move one down

    So C was BEADGCFBbEbAbDbGb

    F major is

    EADGCFBbEbAbDbGbB

    Emin7b5,A7,Dmin6,Gmin7,C7,Fmaj6,Bbmaj7

    The pattern is whatever the major KEY is
    Begin a half step below with a
    Rel Minor ii V I, major ii,V,I,IV

    Let's say Ab major key.
    So start on G

    GCFBbEbAbDbGbBEAD

    Gmin7b5,C7,Fmin6,Bbmin7,Eb7,Abmaj6,Dbmaj7

    How about B major key?
    Start on Bb

    BbEbAbDbGbBEADGCFBb

    Bbmin7b5,Eb7,Abmin6,Dbmin7,Gb7,Bmaj6,Emaj7

    How about A major KEY?
    Start on Ab

    AbDbGbBEADGCFBbEbAb

    Abmin7b5,Db7,Gbmin6,Bmin7,E7,Amaj6,Dmaj7


    The major KEYs number of sharps and flats

    C in center with zero sharps or flats


    C
    0

    The left is flats the right is sharps

    FCG
    101

    Fmajor 1 flat
    Gmajor 1 sharp

    B.Gb.Db.Ab.Eb.Bb.F.C.G.D.A.E.B.F#..C#
    .7...6...5...4..3...2...1.0.1.2..3.4.5.. 6.. 7


    Fmaj has 1 flat it's Bb
    Bbmajor has 2 flat it's Bb Eb
    Ebmaj has 3 flats it's Bb Eb Ab
    Abmaj has 4 flats it's Bb Eb Ab Db
    Dbmaj has 5 flats it Bb Eb Ab Db Gb
    Gbmaj has 6 flats Bb Eb Ab Db Gb Cb
    Cbmaj has 7 flats Bb Eb Ab Db Gb Cb Fb



    G major has 1 sharp and it's F#
    Dmajor has 2 sharps it's F# C#
    Amajor has 3 sharps it's F# C# G#
    Emajor has 4 sharps F# C# G# D#
    Bmajor has 5 # ,F#C#G#D#A#
    F#maj has 6# F#C#G#D#A#E#
    C#maj has 7 # F#C#G#D#A#E#B#
     
    Last edited: Oct 17, 2019
  18. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    Now we are going to look at our main progression types again.

    Dominant/ Tonic/
    Subdominant/ Tonic
    Subdominant/ Dominant/ Tonic

    Looking at these how they appear in Jazz standards.

    Let's begin with a very simple standard
    " Take the A train"
    By Billy Strayhorn
    Written for the Duke Ellington orchestra in the
    Early 1940s

    The Form is A A B A

    In the KEY of C major

    With mostly Diatonic progressions.

    Let's take a closer look


    C6/ x2/. D7#11/ x2
    Dmin7/ G7/ C6/ {Dmin7G7}

    C6/ x2/. D7#11/x2
    Dmin7/ G7/C6/ {Gmin7C7}

    Fmaj7/ x4
    D7/ x2... Dmin7/G7/ Bdim7/

    A section once more.


    Let's break it down to see the functional harmony .

    First section we have
    C6 ( remember C6 =Amin7). D7#11

    This is a Cadence of the V7

    Subdominant / Dominant
    ( Remember when making a ii V I of V
    You leave out the I and make a Cadence to the KEY
    Tonic.

    This is what that looks like.

    {iimin7/ V7/ } ( iimin7, V7)
    .......of V7............of I

    This in the KEY of C major gives us

    Amin7,D7,. ( Dmin7,G7)

    Because C6 and Amin7 are the same chord
    C6 CEGA Amin7 ACEG

    C6/. X2 D7#11 ( remember if we use a 11th on a dominant function we sharpen it.)

    Dmin7/ G7/ C6

    So we have
    Subdominant/ Dominant/(cadence of Gmaj)

    Subdominant/ Dominant/ Tonic ( cadence of C Maj

    Then in the last measure a quick iimin7 V7 before repeating the A section from the top .

    The second A section is the same except at the very end where we had 1 measure of ii V of Cmaj
    This time through this becomes a measure
    Of ii V of Fmaj7 .( This because the first chord of the B section is the 4th degree of C major (Fmaj7)
    The preceding cadence of ii V in the last bar of the A section right before starting the B section gives us a strong resolution To the F major7 x4

    B section
    Fmaj7 X 4
    This is the function

    Tonic/ Subdominant/
    Just turned around like we discussed before.

    Next we have D7 x2
    This is the secondary dominant of the V7
    In C major V7 is G7 GBDF
    We have secondary dominant D7 to G7
    Called V7 of V7
    As well as each chord in C major KEY has a cadence available ( while still in key of C major)
    Except one of the chords is treated different.
    The secondary dominant or the secondary cadence
    Of the V7 of the key is used without resolving .
    This is what we see here.
    Fmaj7 x4 ( cmajors IV chord
    Then D7 x2 ( V7 of V7)
    Then Our expected Cadence of Cmajor
    It is most common to see the secondary cadence
    Or ( V7 of V7) appear resolving To a cadence of I

    {iimin7/ V7}..(iimin7/ V7)
    Of V7................of Imajor

    And this is exactly what we see here.

    At the end of this B section in the last measure
    We have G7,Bdim7 in one bar
    Remember in the key of C major the V7 G7 GBDF
    Can be substituted with Bdim7 BDFG# and here we see this. Before the B section goes right into the last A section.

    Because this Jazz standard is so simple ,
    Let's look at in 2 other KEYS.
    F major and G major

    Remember all the functions remain exactly the same .this is how you are able to switch to other keys easily .

    Take the A train in the key of Fmajor .

    A section x2
    F6/ x2 G7#11/ x2
    Gmin7/ C7/ F6/ {Gmin7C7}
    F6/x2 G7#11/ x2
    Gmin7/ C7/ F6 {Cmin7F7}
    B section
    Bbmaj7 X4
    G7/ x2 Gmin7/ { C7 Edim7}
    A section x 1


    Here we can see everything functionally the same as described before , the only difference is the
    Key itself was shifted from C major down to F major a darker sound ( even though it could have been played higher or lower in pitch )

    Lastly let's see the same thing now this time in the KEY of G major .

    Take the A train KEY of Gmajor.



    A section x2
    G6/ x2 A7#11/ x2
    Amin7/ D7/ G6/ {Amin7D7}
    G6/x2 A7#11/ x2
    Amin7/ D7/ G6 {Dmin7G7}
    B section
    Cmaj7 X4
    A7/ x2 Amin7/ { D7 F#dim7}
    A section x 1

    Here again the functions are exactly the same we just went from the KEY of C major to the key of Gmajor shifting the tonality up brighter
    ( Even if you played it lower in sound then the C major version )

    KEYS of
    G major has 1 sharp
    Cmajor has zero accidentals
    Fmajor has 1 flat

    That is the order of brightness to darkness.
     
    Last edited: Oct 18, 2019
  19. krakenfart

    krakenfart Ultrasonic

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    Yawn...
    That is the order of sucking life out of an art form.
     
  20. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    I don't follow what you mean?
    How is understanding " suck the life form" out of anything?
    Are you implying that being ignorant of something some how makes it more exciting than to understand how it works?
    I can possibly see how that view could make sense in certain situations .
    However if you compare the two positions with each other .

    1.gaining possibly being excited by being ignorant how how music works .
    2.gaining understanding of infinite variations of possibilities of expressing yourself through understanding how it works.

    99.9 percent of the time, having the knowledge demolishes anything gained by being ignorant .
    When you really compare the two options in a real world context the one or 2 tiny things you get from being ignorant are vastly outweighed by the infinite more things gained by having knowledge instead of being ignorant .
    In many situations in life there is a risk of certain thing like anxiety by having knowledge compared to bring ignorant .
    ( Due to the vast complexity of reality, and due to capacity or lack thereof to fathom picking one choice out of thousands of options )
    But the alternative to that is not having the knowledge of those thousands of possibilities and therefore not truly having freedom in a moment your deciding what to choose to express yourself .

    What you look at and think of as " sucking the life out of an artform"
    I look at and see millions of possibilities to choose from in a single moment if time I am about to decide what to play over a chord or a progression.
    Having this knowledge betters you in every way and gives you a way to always improve yourself musically.
    Not only being ignorant of music, but to go as so far as to claim ignorance is better than knowledge and in anyway superior , is to not take into account all variables in the situation.
    You see to not take account all variables in a situation means ignorance. Ignorance causes misunderstanding .
    That which you cannot fathom ( willfully ignorant or accidentally ignorant ) causes us to misunderstand the way things really work.
    If our thoughts and ideas don't match reality , we create a fictional account which gives us poor results . This holds true for every aspect of life .
    If I am ignorant of automobiles , and yet create a storyline in my thoughts about why my car won't start, what is the probability that my idea matches reality?
    Similarly with music , if you don't understand it you will not know what is possible for options.
    Example.
    Say you have a chord Cmaj CEG
    How many possibilities can a ignorant person be aware of regarding how many possible Melody's you could create over it?
    What about yourself?
    5? 10? 100?
    How many melodies can your yourself think of that represent Cmaj?
    What about Dmin7/ G7/ C6?
    How many melodies can you think of right now or in the next week that represent this progression?
    100? 1000? 5000?
    There are millions of melodies that represent this form.
    Let's say a person who takes " ignorance" as s approach how many possibilities which actually exist are they going to be unaware of?
    Let's say for Dmin7/ G7/ Cmajor
    You come up with 8000 melodies.
    If the actual number is 1 million , look at how many you were not aware of.
    Now making music is about expressing yourself .
    How can you make the best choice to express yourself in one moment of time if you don't even know what the possibilities are?
    If you think of 5 variations and choose what you think is the best one and leave 2 million choices out how confident are you that you chose what is really inside of you? ( That your choice translates your emotions)

    Essentially your argument would be like saying

    "A 7 year old child can articulate what is inside them better than a 30 year old with their spoken language , because the more words and vocabulary a person knows the more it takes the magic away from speaking to people."

    Reality shows that this is opposite of the truth .
    The more words you know the more semantics you know the more you can articulate the exact idea you have or the exact feeling you have converted into your spoken language .

    The truth is people say things like to be ignorant of music is superior than to learn knowledge, in order
    To try and feel better that they haven't put the work in .many people say they " love music." Or " music is my life "
    Anything you supposedly " love"
    How much can you love, that which you are willfully ignorant of?

    " I love cars so much that I believe not knowing how they work , what parts there are how they fit together
    Is loving cars. "
    That's not even knowing what a car is it how it works.
    You love something you don't even know what it is how it works?
    Is that what love means?
     
    Last edited: Oct 18, 2019
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  21. krakenfart

    krakenfart Ultrasonic

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    I know you're not merant to feed trolls, but after all your waffle - prove it. With your expertise I would expect you to be published, on a par with Dave Grusin, maybe with an overtone of Dave Brubek. I've known so many who 'talk the talk' just like this purile nonsense but can't 'walkj the waljk'. Have you ever actually gigged? Are you a professional musician? Where can I buy your music? You're so knowledaeable you must have dozens of fantastic CD's or published works to choose from.

    Or, it could be, you are just grandising - expecting allocades about how smart you (think you) are.

    I won't carry on with this, it's clear you're full of it... very eloquent, but full of it nevertheless. I look forward to seeing you at your next gig at the Royal Albert Hall..... (now holding breath).....
     
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