Music Bites #2. ( All about the Cadence)

Discussion in 'Education' started by MMJ2017, Jun 21, 2019.

  1. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    Music Bites #2

    All about the Cadence.

    What is it? How does it work?
    What is the purpose?

    A cadence is an extension of a chord.
    It is the next level of detail, where the most simple version is the chord and the cadence prepares the landing on the chord for impact.


    Let's see this

    In the KEY of C major ( A relative Minor

    1. Is Cmaj7 CEGB

    So the simple way to use this chord is just directly.
    CEGB
    But the next level of detail is to turn this into a cadence.

    A cadence means you begin with a
    Subdominant function ( some tension

    Moving to a Dominant function ( full tension

    Finally resolving to Tonic function ( relaxing at your destination

    This is harmonic motion.
    The music is travelling with a cadence.
    You are preparing the music so that the tonic at the end is satisfying because you went on a adventure before succeeding at the end.
    It's like conflict then resolution in a motion picture.
     
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  3. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    With a cadence you have 3 functions.
    Subdominant
    Dominant
    Tonic

    These are categories which group chords together such that you can select any specific chord or note from that whole category.

    In the KEY of C major.
    The cadence for Cmajor

    Is

    Dmin7 ii chord subdominant
    G7 V chord dominant
    C6 I chord tonic

    You have 2 types of cadences major and minor

    For the major cadence it is ii V I in the major key of I
    Let's look at the relative minor A minor ( c major

    Bmin7b5. ii% chord. Subdominant
    E7. V chord dominant
    Amin6. I chord tonic

    For the minor cadence it is

    ii%, V7 , imin6

    In the minor key of imin6


    Any type of chord fits into these 2 cadences .

    So if you have let's say
    C7. CEGBb

    As your chord you are Bout to turn into a cadence instead of playing the chord directly ( next layer of detail)

    You treat a dominant chord cadence as the major type.

    Dmin7 DFAC subdominant
    G7. GBDF dominant
    C7. CEGA#. Tonic

    This would be the cadence for C7 CEGBb

    .let's say Cmin7b5 C Eb Gb Bb ( C D# F# A#)

    Was a chord you want to turn into a cadence
    Your follow the minor type

    Dmin7b5. D F Ab C ( subdominant
    G7. GBDF. Dominant
    Cmin7b5. C D# F# A# ( C Eb Gb Bb tonic.

    This means every chord type has a cadence and that cadence is either the major type or minor type of cadence.
     
  4. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    Part B

    A cadence is the extension of the chord in question.
    Expanding any chord into a movement.

    But you can trim down a cadence as well.

    A normal cadence for C major

    Dmin7 subdominant
    G7 dominant
    C6. Tonic

    You can trim way the subdominant function of s cadence to be V7 to I

    G7 GBDF
    C6 CEGA ( more on 6th chords later)

    Now this is refered to as a " secondary dominant"

    But you can think of it as trimming down the cadence .

    You see a cadence is the first building block of a larger peice of the puzzle " chord progressions"

    Anytime you want to go from one chord to another you just create a cadence for the chord about the happen next ( or the trimmed down secondary dominant)
    You can make it a ii V7 to I
    Or you can make it a V7 to I.

    Imagine I have this.

    Dmin7 G7 C6.
    But I want a Emaj7 chord to come in next .
    How do you do it?

    You can make a full cadence of
    Subdominant dominant tonic
    Or you can make the trimmed down secondary dominant
    Dominant tonic.
    Let's see both

    (
    Dmin7 G7 C6 F#min7 B7 Emaj7

    Dmin7 G7 C6 B7 Emaj7

    You see we are preparing the impact of the Emaj7 chord about to happen with. A ii V7 I or V7 to I
    Functionally so that the listener can hear the tonality shift from Cmaj as it's focus to E Maj at it's focus. This creates motion but it also makes it so the music makes sense to listener as well.

    Another example

    Dmin7 G7 Cmaj7
    Now say we want F#min7b5 ( F#ACE
    To happen next.
    First we note to follow the minor cadence

    Dmin7 G7 Cmaj7 G#min7b5 C#7 F#min7b5

    Again we create structural motion while giving the listener a way to make sense of the tonality shifting
    From one place to another.
    If your pace of the music is slow generally preceed
    With a cadence
    If your pace of the music is fast generally preceed with a secondary dominant ( trim away the subdominant)
     
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  5. DJK

    DJK Rock Star

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    interesting knowledge my friend
     
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  6. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    When it comes to using this information.
    Some like to go more " minimalist approach"
    One way to do that is to break the 7th chords up into 2 triads
    If we had a structure of
    DFAC G7 CEGB
    You can break up the 7th chords into

    DFA, FAC. GBD BDF, CEG EGB

    It's important to keep in mind the difference between the music language structure
    And what gets actually played
    They are two very different things.
    A cadence of Dmin7 G7 C6
    For example can be represented by
    Thousands of different melodies and music layers
    Chord comping etc.
    There so many ways to use the way music works
    When it comes to making sound in a moment of time for a song.
     
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  7. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    Part C
    Substitutions ( regarding Cadence)

    First off we will take our dominant
    Portion of the cadence . As this has the most substitutions and options because it represents tension right before we move to the tonic for resolution.

    The first substitution is called
    The tritone substitution

    How this works is to begin with your V7 chord.

    In C major cadence
    Dmin7 G7 C6

    This will be the G7
    GBDF G7
    The tritone substitution means build a dominant 7th chord one tritone away from G note.
    C# is the tritone.
    C#7 ( C# F G# B )
    Notice the 3rd and 7th F and B
    Notice G7 GBDF
    Also has its 3rd and 7th B and F
    This is the power of the tritone substitution

    When you use the tritone substitution chord
    You attach the Lydian dominant scale to play over the chord.
    C# Lydian dominant C# D# F G G# A# B
    Now instead of

    DMin7 G7 C6
    With the tritone sub
    We get

    Dmin7 C#7 C6 ( DFAC C# FG#B CEGA

    Notice this substitution gives us a chromatic descending bass motion.



    The minor cadence tritone substitution

    A minor cadence


    Bmin7b5 E7 Amin6

    Our V7 is E7. E G# B D
    So we build a dominant 7th chord a tritone from E

    A#7. A# D F G#
    Notice the 3rd and 7th is D and G#
    The 3rd and 7th of E7 is also G# and D
    This is the power of the tritone sub.

    We use A# Lydian dominant scale over this chord for the tritone substitution.
    A# Lydian dominant A# C D E F G G#

    Bmin7b5 A#7 Amin6

    We can see the chromatic motion if the cadence when using the tritone sub.

    Let's now show you a C major cadence with tritone sub combined with A minor cadence with tritone sub into a single progression.

    Dmin7 C#7 C6 Bmin7b5 A#7 Amin6

    Notice the chromatic descending bass note motion.
     
  8. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    V7 Dominant chord substitution #2

    The Altered Chord.

    Take our V7 from Cmajor cadence

    G7. GBDF..
    ........1357..

    The easiest way to understand the G7 altered is
    To build a Melodic minor scale off the flat 9th of the chord in question.
    So for G7 that is G# melodic minor .
    If we first look at A melodic minor we get this
    A B C D E F# G#

    1.ACEG#. Aminmajor7th ( aka Aminmaj
    2.BDF#A. Bminor7
    3.CEG#B. Cmaj7#5
    4.DF#AC. D7
    5.EG#BD. E7
    6.F#ACE. F#min7b5
    7.G#BDF#. G#min7b5


    Now going back to G# melodic minor for the G7 altered chord we get.

    G# A# B C# D# F G

    Now we want to look at the G7 notes.

    G B D F A C E
    1 3 5 7 9 11 13

    We can see alterations for the altered chord
    G# is flat 9th
    A# is sharp 9th
    C# is flat 5
    D# is sharp 5

    So a Altered G7 chord is
    GBD#FA#C#D#
    You would use that instead of
    GBDF in your cadence.
    When using the altered dominant chord
    You cannot use a natural 5th , use flat 5 or sharp 5 flat 9 or sharp 9 .
    So for example

    DFAC GBC#FA# CEGA

    You see altering the V7 gives you more tension
    Which pronounces the relaxation of the tonic even more and it more satisfying to the ear when you finally resolve to C major ( than less tense GBDF

     
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  9. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    V7 chord substitution #3

    The whole tone scale.
    If we take our V7 chord from our C major cadence
    G7. GBDF

    And we build a scale from the root which is entirely whole tones we get.
    G A B C# D# F G
    G is root
    A is 9th
    B is 3rd
    C# is b5th
    D# is #5th
    F is 7th
    G is root.




    ..........



    V7 chord substitution # 4
    The Half Whole Diminished scale




    If we take our V7 chord from any cadence
    In this case the G7 from C major cadence

    G7 GBDF

    And we build a half step whole step scale
    We get this
    G G# A# B C# D E F G

    G is root
    G# is b9th
    A# is #9th
    B is 3rd
    C# is b5th
    D is 5th
    E is 13th
    F is 7th
    G is root

    All you have to do is play these scales for the duration of the V7 chord in the cadence to bring out their unique flavors and traits.
     
  10. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    V7 chord substitution #5

    The Diminished 7th chord .

    If we build a dim7 chord off the 7th degree of C major
    ( Dim7 is all minor 3rds stacked)

    We get
    B D F G#

    It's a symmetrical chord which means what ever applies to one note also applied to the rest of them.

    If we think of how this compares to A G7
    GBDF we just turning the root into a b9th
    G#BDF

    So this means each note of the dim7 slides down half-step to create a dominant 7th chord.

    G#BDF. GBDF G7
    BDFG#. A#DFG# A#7
    DFG#B. C#FG#B. C#7
    FG#BD. EG#BD. E7

    Will you look at that!
    The V7 of Cmajor and it's tritone sub
    The V7 of relative Aminor and it's tritone sub

    .
     
  11. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    Scale of chords.

    If we now take our dim7
    BDFG#
    And combine the notes with C6 CEGA
    We get 8 note scale
    B C D E F G G# A

    Where each note of the scale is an inversion of the tonic (in form of C6 CEGA
    And the form of the dominant ( in form of dim7 BDFG#

    CEGA.
    DFG#B
    EGAC
    FG#BD
    GACE
    G#BDF
    ACEG
    BDFG#

    What we have is a trimmed down cadence ( V7 to I)
    Such that we can attach harmony to melody to express the dominant resolving to Tonic.
     
  12. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    You see we use the C6 chord CEGA
    To represent the major tonic because if we instead used the Cmajor7 CEGB the B is borrowed from the dominant chord that fits with Cmajor , the G7 GBDF
    B is the 3rd a strong note in G7.

    However there is another reason.
    C6 is identical to Aminor7
    CEGA equals ACEG ( more on this later

    If we modify our scale of chords slightly
    C6 CEGA modified to be C7 CEGA#
    Watch what happens.

    Scale of chords

    CEGA#
    DFG#B
    EGA#C
    FG#BD
    GA#CE
    G#BDF
    A#CEG

    We actually get a secondary dominant
    C7 dominant and it's V7 chord which fits with it.
     
  13. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    If we make another modification from the original C6 CEGA to make it into CEF#A we get Amin6 chord
    ACEF# Amin6

    Now again turn it into scale of chords.
    ACEF#
    BDFG#
    CEF#A
    DFG#B
    EF#AC
    FG#BD
    F#ACE
    G#BDF

    We get the secondary dominant for a Min6 chord
    The V7 which fits with it.

    But as before like with the C6 being a Amin7
    The Amin6 chord is also a F#min7b5 chord.

    So now we scales of chords for these types.
    Major
    Minor
    Dominant
    Min6
    Minor7b5

    We have a way to create a trimmed down cadence for these chords such that we can create melodies which travel along the chord tones following the tension ( V7 to release ( tonic
     
  14. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    Let's say we are thinking in the key if C major.
    We want to create a full Cadence

    Dmin7 G7. Cmajor

    How can we create a scale of chords for the
    Subdominant, the dominant, and the tonic?


    Well the Dmin7 is same as F6 chord
    C#EGA#
    DFAC
    EGA#C#
    FACD
    GA#C#E
    ACDF
    A#C#EG
    CDFA
    C#EGA#

    Next for the G7 we have

    F#ACD#
    GBDF
    ACD#F#
    BDFG
    CD#F#A
    DFGB
    D#F#AC
    FGBD
    F#ACD#
    GBDF

    And finally the tonic
    CEGA
    DFG#B
    EGAC
    FG#BD
    GACE
    G#BDF
    ACEG
    BDFG#
    CEGA

    We now have the V7 chord of each of the three chords available for tension and release outlining Melody and or harmony at our disposal at our free will .
     
  15. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    Next let's say we are creating a full cadence in Amin ( relative Cmajor)

    Bmin7b5 E7 Amin6

    We seen before that our min6 scale of chords is same as min7b5

    So Bmin7b5 BDFA is also Dmin6 DFAB

    This means
    A#C#EG
    BDFA
    C#EGA#
    DFAB
    EGA#C#
    FABD
    GA#C#E
    ABDF
    A#C#EG

    This gives us the V7 for Bminor7b5 (secondary dominant)

    Next the scale of chords for E7

    D#F#AC
    EG#BD
    F#ACD#
    G#BDE
    ACD#F#
    BDEG#
    CD#F#A
    DEG#B
    D#F#AC

    This gives us the secondary dominant which belongs to E7

    Finally
    Amin6 tonic scale of chords

    ACEF#
    BDFG#
    CEF#A
    DFG#B
    EF#AC
    FG#BD
    F#ACE
    G#BDF
    ACEG#

    We now have the full Amin cadence with a scale of chords for the subdominant dominant and tonic

    Bmin7b5 to E7 to Amin6.
     
  16. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    Here is an easy way to get down the scale of chords , for each type of chord there is.

    Begin with the C6 CEGA
    CEGA
    DFG#B
    EGAC
    FG#BD
    GACE
    G#BDF
    ACEG
    BDFG#
    CEGA

    Now by we simply modify our C6 chord each time

    C6 CEGA
    C7 CEGA#
    AMin6 CEF#A
    Amin7 ACEG

    But our dim7 always stays the same BDFG#

    Because
    C6 CEGA equals Aminor7 ACEG
    Amin6 ACEF# equals F#min7b5 F#ACE
    C7 CEGA#

    They all use BDFG# dim7

    This is quickest way to learn the scale of chords for each type of chord there is.

    You can even build a scale of chords for Bdim7

    BDFG#
    C#EGA#
    DFG#B
    EGA#C#
    FG#BD
    GA#C#E
    G#BDF
    A#C#EG
    BDFG#
     
  17. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    Please feel free to comment and ask me about anything thank you for your time my friends.
     
  18. DhaDhaPequeno

    DhaDhaPequeno Noisemaker

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    Why C6 chord specifically? Because of what your next post said about How B is would mean the dominant and tonic share a note?
     
  19. DhaDhaPequeno

    DhaDhaPequeno Noisemaker

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    Why modify it to A# specifically?
     
  20. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    Hello friend ,
    Thanks that is a fantastic question.

    When we start out we are using C6 CEGA ( tonic)

    Now, when we slightly modify it to A#
    That gives us a different type of chord .
    A dominant chord C7 CEGA#
    A dominant chord is tense
    A tonic chord is relaxed.
    We need both at different times
    So if our brain can see all the things which are the same as well as the one tiny difference .
    The brain can easily understand
    CEGA
    DFG#B
    EGAC
    FG#BD
    GACE
    G#BDF
    ACEG

    Compared to this.
    CEGA#
    DFG#B
    EGA#C
    FG#BD
    GA#CE
    G#BDF
    A#CEG
    BDFG#
    CEGA#

    The only change needed to see the structure being applied to a whole other different type of chord and scale of chords is changing that A to A#

    So
    Cmaj
    Is tonic
    Dmin7,G7 ,C6

    But C7 is dominant which resolves to Fmaj key

    Gmin7, C7,Fmaj

    Here is note of c major
    CDEFGAB
    Here is notes of Fmajor
    FGAA#CE ( CDEFGAA#
    A#= Bb Bflat
     
  21. MMJ2017

    MMJ2017 Audiosexual

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    Hello friend , that's a great question.

    If we take C major
    CDEFGAB
    Next create chord for each degree.
    CEGB
    DFAC
    EGBD
    FACE
    GBDF
    ACEG
    BDFA

    We can see it's a Cmajor7 CEGB

    However when we create a scale of chords
    What we want to accomplish is taking the form.
    V to I and repeat it through inversions.

    Now
    The C6 is CEGA
    We use the A because the dim7 we pair C6 with
    G#BDF contains the tritone the BandF resolve to CandE
    To go from tense to relaxed.
    Second .
    If we look at C6 CEGA notes combined with bdim7 BDFG# notes we get
    CDEFGG#ABC
    It gives us even number if notes along with a chord for each note.
    CEGA
    DFG#B
    EGAC
    FG#BD
    GACE
    G#BDF
    ACEG
    BDFG#

    I to V to I to V to I etc.

    Tension to release.
     
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